The dream of Prigogine (1)

We have previously said that the configuration of the “almost free” electrons of the water, compared to the valence electrons in the metals, keep the electrons close to the atoms and allows the coherence domain to oscillate; this is why oscillation is possible for water and not for metals. The water is on the border between the insulators and the conductors; it generally behaves like an excellent insulator (to free the electron of hydrogen it takes well 13.6 eV) but when it is in the configuration of “Almost free” electron, behaves like an excellent conductor(2). The same mechanism that allows the formation of coherence domains also allows for higher level coherences where numerous consistency domains (from about 1/10 micron each) coherently oscillate together.

Since the number of possible configurations for each coherence domain is very high, also the possible coherences are many and such to form a hierarchy of levels of groups of domains each having its own characteristic frequency of oscillation. All this means that small energetic jumps are sufficient to allow water – simultaneously with very different frequencies all different from one another – to oscillate from one configuration to another(3) allowing to produce very complicated resulting electromagnetic fields. In summary, the surrounding environment gives water (disordered) energy that is used by water to generate (using the “almost free” electrons) coherence domains that in turn generate domains of domains, which in turn generate domains of domains of domains, up to the size domains of a whale … .. The domains of coherence are ordered and ordering systems that take energy from the disordered and disordering surrounding environment. Here the coherence domains realize precisely those dissipative systems (of which Prigogine speaks) able to spontaneously generate order. It’s like when, blowing “untidy” air on a clarinet an “ordered” sound comes out. Here is a tangible example (like that of the metronomes) of spontaneous reduction of entropy, of creating order starting from disorder(4).

The domains, being coherent, do not decay (they remain for very long times) and in the meantime, over time, others are continuously added. The “sum” (better to say overlap) of coherent excitations is also a coherent excitation but, just as with all types of waves when they are coherent, intensities increase and energy increases accordingly(5). We are witnessing a typical phenomenon of low energy: instead of acting with fast transfers of large quantities of energy (high energy), here we have a very large number of tiny simultaneous transfers of energy that (not being dissipative systems) accumulate over time thus increasing gradually the amount of energy at stake. To transport a large load from Rome to Paris, I can decide to do only one short-haul transport, or many small transports, both contemporary and sequential.

Ultimately living beings, based on this mechanism, allow the transformation of the incoherent energy of the environment into coherent energy. This has a sequential effect on biochemical activity because, based on the fact that the creation of coherence is accompanied by an electromagnetic field that oscillates at a given frequency, there is a theorem in electrodynamics (quantum electrodynamic coherence theorem(6)) that says that if I have an extended electromagnetic field that oscillates with a certain frequency “0” and I take two molecules, one of which oscillates with frequency “1” and the other that oscillates with frequency “2”, between these 2 molecules is established a force that depends on the values ​​of the three frequencies which, in general, is a very small (negligible) force, but becomes large (and important here) in the case where the three frequencies coincide. Based on this theorem, if two molecules resonate at the same frequency of a coherence domain within which they pass, these molecules attract even if they are at great distances between them. The maximum distance that this mechanism allows is the distance of the coherence domain. This attraction makes them meet and react. This reaction produces energy that is absorbed by the electromagnetic field. The energy produced by the biochemical reaction changes the frequency in the field. The new frequency activates biochemical molecules that are at the new frequency and that react with each other. In this way I obtain a sequence of biochemical reactions able to self-regulate because each step (reaction) of this sequence of reactions uniquely defines what will be the next step (reaction). This explanation would solve a mystery of molecular biology because a large number of biological processes are traced back to ordered sequences of biochemical reactions. For example, to move a glass from a position “1” to a position “2” with one hand, the molecule “A” must react with the molecule “B”, then the molecule “C” reacts with the “D” “, Then that the molecule” E “reacts with the” F “, etc. for a sequence of millions of biochemical reactions. Only at the end of this long sequence of reactions will the glass be in position “2”. In order for this to happen, it is necessary that the molecule “A” reacts with the molecule “B” and only with it, that the molecule “C” reacts with the “D” and only with it, that the molecule “E” reacts with the ” F “and only with it, etc. It is also necessary that all the molecules of all the reactions of the sequence, none excluded, recognize each other and meet to react despite being distant from one another(7). In addition, the reactions must be extremely fast: the movement of the glass lasts a few seconds and, in these few seconds, millions of sequential biochemical reactions must take place. Finally, the whole process must be almost free of errors so that, instead of moving the glass, anything else is done. I say “almost error free” and not “error free” because while a software algorithm allows an artificial arm of a robot to always move the glass exactly the same way, this does not happen in the case of biological movements. Not even the most virtuous violinist ever existed would be able to perform a piece of music always exactly the same way: between an execution and the other there are always minimal differences that make each performance unique. This is another fundamental requirement for there to be evolution. We are imagining an evolution very different from that imagined by Darwin; Darwin claims that among a myriad of disordered and disordering events, stochastically from time to time someone ordered and ordering that generates evolution: here we have the case instead of a myriad of events ordered and ordering from time to time there is some disordered event but it too ordering that changes the sequence of events by making it evolve to another direction. This new direction may be a dead end or a new evolutionary trend. Ultimately, for chemistry the meeting of molecules to react is random; in our case it can not be random because it would take too long and because it could lead to completely different reactions from those of the established sequence. The chemical agent that allows all these conditions and above all that prevents unwanted biochemical reactions is water. The password that allows the correct chemical reactions and not others is the frequency.

Turin (Italy)

Gianfranco Pellegrini

(1)    Ilya Prigogine (Moscow, 25 January 1917 – Brussels, 28 May 2003) was a Belgian-born Russian national chemist and physicist, well known for his theories of dissipative structures, complex systems and irreversibility. In 1977 he received the Nobel Prize for chemistry for his theories concerning thermodynamics applied to complex systems far from equilibrium. In the thought of Prigogine, the concept of entropy, or the second principle of thermodynamics, is of crucial importance: every natural process, in fact, is irreversible and tends to increase its entropy (and that of the environment in which it is located). Time too, as a succession of always different states, must be conceived as irreversible, and is subject to entropy in turn. However, in nature there are living organisms able to self-organize themselves by decreasing their entropy to the detriment of the environment, bound to a greater or less entropic disorder. Starting from these considerations, Prigogine and other scientists (including Francisco Varela, Harold Morowitz and Enzo Tiezzi) began to bridge the gap between physics, chemistry, ecology and the social sciences, to study these sectors not separately but as interacting systems between them. For this reason Prigogine is considered one of the pioneers of the so-called science of complexity. In recent years Prigogine worked on the mathematics of non-linear and chaotic systems and proposed the use of Hilbert space extended in quantum mechanics as a possible tool to introduce irreversibility even in quantum systems. . (From Wikipedia).

(2)    I must mention two apparently strange natural phenomena. Lightning can not form if the relative humidity of the air is not high enough (apart from cases of sand storms, blizzards, clouds of volcanic dust, “lightning strikes”). But if water, like air, is an excellent insulator, how does it allow lightning to propagate? The potential difference between the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere is 200/500 kV, corresponding to a current density of only 2 pA / m2 (2 thousandths of a billionth of Ampere per m2). The potential difference is guaranteed by a thunderstorm 30/100 lightening / second activity (about 5,000,000 lightning bolts per day). None of the two current hypotheses on the mechanism of lightning (convective theory and gravitational theory) is able to adequately explain the mechanism of lightning. Perhaps the explanation for this problem can be found by hypothesizing that the friction of water due to strong upward / descending currents favors the configuration of “almost free” electrons. Another question not sufficiently explained: if we (and more generally all living things) are made of water and water is an excellent insulation why we take the shock? Maybe because the consistency domains oscillate between a non-excited configuration and one of almost free electrons. We will go deeper into this topic later on, when we’ll talk about hydrogen bonding, interfacial water, the fourth phase of water.

(3)    The overlapping of oscillations at different frequencies (and phases) is a typical phenomenon of wave propagation (sound, marine, electromagnetic, quantum, seismic, etc.). Using the same formulas (wave equations, beats, modulations, lateral bands, etc.) and the same mathematical tools (trigonometry, imaginary exponentials, series and Fourier transforms) we can also study in detail the effects of the simultaneous oscillations of the water at different frequencies.

(4)    Evolutionists may perhaps be inspired by these considerations to search for alternative theories to Darwinism, neo-Darwinism, creationism …. since none of these theories is proving sustainable.

(5)   Although the frequency is the same, the phase difference causes the overlap of sinusoidal functions while respecting the principle of superposition of the effects from place to resulting waves having greater intensity but different from the sum of the intensities, frequency different from the sum of the frequencies and phases different from the sum of the phases. Energy is proportional to the square of intensity and increases even more complicated.

(6)   QED Coherence in Matter, World Scientific, 1995 – Giuliano Preparata

(7)    The coherence domain has dimensions of the order of 1/10 of a micron, a monosaccharide e.g. it has dimensions equal to about 0.5 nm (200 times smaller): it is as if two bodies of one meter size have to interact at 200 m distance.



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