All the oscillations related to the molecules constitute in general an incoherent system(1) and only under certain conditions, limited to a more or less large space that contains a certain number of molecules – called coherence domain – it is possible to obtain a state of coherence.
In the case of water, the oscillation that gives rise to the state of coherence occurs between a configuration (not excited) in which the electrons are all strongly linked to the molecule and an (excited) configuration in which an electron for each molecule results “almost free”. Be careful that “almost free” does not mean “totally free”, like in the case of metals. In metals, the electrons move away enormously from the original molecules of belonging. For example, in a small-section copper electric cable, the electrons (of valence) related to the atoms inside the section migrate towards the periphery of the section (ie in the border area between copper and insulator), then, if the atom has the dimensions of a ten millionth of millimeter and the radius of the part in copper is equal to an example to a millimeter, the distance of which they depart the valence electrons belonging to atoms located at the center of the cable is ten million times the size of the atom of belonging. It is as if a pingpong ball moves away from its original position of 40 km !!!! If an alternating voltage(2) is applied to the cable, the electrons would axially alternate back and forth in a distance between 1 and 10 microns from the initial rest position. If the voltage is continuous the electron would move away more and more to a drifting speed included between 0.1 mm/s and 1 mm/s; It is as if the pingpong ball goes away of 40 km every second for all the duration of the tension exerted on the ends of the electric cable !!!. Here, in the case of water, in the excited state to which I mentioned before the electrons are “almost free” and therefore, compared to the case of metals, in this case, although free, they remain very close to the molecule of belonging.
Another aspect that I want to highlight is that in the non-excited configuration of the water molecule with respect to the “almost free” configuration, to free an electron it takes a energy of 13.6 eV(3), corresponding to heat the water up to 158.000 °C (4) or to bombard it with very hi-frequency ultraviolet rays (almost X-rays) (5) !!! It is a huge energy and therefore an extremely stable configuration. This means that the oscillation that gives rise to a coherent state passes from a condition of extreme stability in which the water behaves like an excellent electrical insulator to a completely opposite configuration (excellent conductor).
What is the frequency (and therefore the wavelength) corresponding to this coherent oscillation? The wavelength is equal to 0.1 micron (equal to one ten thousandth of a millimeter) and therefore the frequency is equal to 300 PHz (300 thousand of billions of cycles per second). The ultraviolet radiation is between 400 nm and 10 nm (749 THz and 30 PHz) and therefore a wavelength equal to 0.1 micron = 100 nm is included in the ultraviolet band. Thus the base radiation capable of creating this coherent oscillation state on the water electrons belongs to the ultraviolet band.
What size does the coherence domain have? It is approximately equal to the wavelength of the electromagnetic field which gives rise to the fluctuation, ie 0.1 micron. Thus all the water molecules contained in a space having a radius of about 0.1 microns, if activated by ultraviolet radiation with a frequency of 300 PHz, oscillate in a coherent manner. Since the water molecule has an average diameter of the order of 1 Ängstrom (one ten millionth of mm) and the size of the coherence domain is 0.1 microns (one ten thousandth of a millimeter), a consistency domain is large about a thousand times the size of the water molecule; just to make a comparison, if the water molecule has a diameter of one meter, the coherence domain would have a radius of 1 km.
Finally, one last question: how many water molecules are there in a coherent domain? A consistency domain contains about 20 million molecules (6).
Now we have all the ingredients that allow us to deepen the effects of the interaction between forcing ultraviolet radiation and electrons of water molecules and its incredible consequences.
(1) they oscillate with different phases covering, in the multitude, statistically and meanly the whole range of possible phase shifts. We know that the multiple phase displacements of 2π result in phase with the corresponding phase displacements between 0 and 2π; e.g. displacements between oscillations equal to α, α + 2π, α + 4π, α + nπ are all in phase with each other, so the range of phase displacements that are of interest to analyze is only that between 0 and 2π.
(2) Are been considered a drift velocity of the electrons between 0.1 and 1 and 1 mm / s and a network frequency equal to 50 Hz (a semifrequency equal to 100 Hz).
(3) This energy can be easily calculated starting from Eisenberg’s principle p x r >= h/2. Therefore the order of magnitude of the momentum will be approximately equal to p≈h/r. The kinetic energy of the electron will therefore be equal to mv2/2 = p2/2m = h2/2mr2 while the potential energy will be equal to -qpqe/4πε0r. Therefore the total energy will be equal to
E = h2/2mr2 – qpqe/4πε0r
Where h is Planck’s constant of 6.626 x 10-34 J • s, m is the electron mass of 9.109 x 10-31 kg, qp and qe are respectively the charges of electron and proton equal to 1,602 x 10-19 C and r is the distance of the electron from the still unknown nucleus. To find the most probable distance we derive the energy with respect to the distance and equal it to 0 in order to find the minimum energy distance:
dE/dr = -h2/2mr3 + qpqe/4πε0r2
Placing dE / dr = 0 we obtain r0 = 0.528 x 10-10 m = 0.528 angstrom (called Bohr radius) which represents the radius of the spherical surface of maximum probability in which to find the electron of the hydrogen atom. At this point it is sufficient to replace this value in the energy equation and we obtain E0 = -13,6 eV (1 eV = 1,602176565 x 10-19 J).
(4) Considering that 1 eV is equal to 1.6 * 10-19 J and that the Boltzman constant is equal to Kb = 1.38 * 10-23 J / K, 13.6 eV correspond to an increase of temperature equal to about 158.000 K ≈ 158.000 ° C (we are neglecting the 273.15 K of translating Kelvion and Celsius scales because is irrelevant).
(5) For the incident radiation the energy corresponding to 13.6 eV is equal to hν being “ν” the frequency of the radiation and “h” the Planck constant equal to 4.136 * 10-15 eV. the frequency necessary to release this energy corresponds to 13.6 / 4.136 * 10-15 = 3.29 * 1015, ie about 3 PHz. Taking into account that the X-ray band starts at 30 PHz we see that we are very close to X-rays. This simple calculation makes us observe that the UV are not all the same. Those naturally filtered by the atmosphere are closer to λ = 400 nm (near the visible band and therefore not too high energies) but it is sufficient to go down to only 250 nm (the length emitted by the mercury vapors used for vermicide lamps is equal to 254 nm) is such radiation is already able to destroy the molecular bonds of the DNA of microorganisms, producing thymine dimers in their DNA and destroying them, rendering them harmless or preventing their growth and reproduction. In our example we are talking about 3 PHz corresponding to λ = 100 nm, therefore well below 254 nm of mercury vapor.
(6) Approximating a coherence domain with a sphere having a diameter of 0.1 microns, its volume is equal to about 5.2 * 10-22 m3; the molecular mass of water is equal to 18 kg/mole, so every m3 of water contains 55.556 moles; every mole contains 6,02 * 1023 molecules, therefore every m3 of water contains 3,34 * 1028 molecules and therefore a domain contains about 1,75 * 107 molecules.